Understanding the S7-200 Timer Instructions

You can use timers to implement time-based counting functions. The S7-200 instruction set provides three different types of timers.

·On-Delay Timer (TON) for timing a single interval

·Retentive On-Delay Timer (TONR) for accumulating a number of timed intervals

·Off-Delay Timer (TOF) for extending time past a false condition (such as cooling a motor after it is turned off)

Timer Actions:

Timer Type Current >= Preset Enabling Input ON Enabling Input OFF Power Cycle/
First Scan
TON Timer bit ON,
Current continues
counting to 32,767
Current value
counts time
Timer bit OFF,
Current value = 0
Timer bit OFF,
Current value = 0
TONR Timer bit ON,
Current continues
counting to 32,767
Current value
counts time
Timer bit and
current value
maintain last state
Timer bit OFF,
Current value may
be maintained (1)
TOF Timer bit OFF,
Current = Preset,
stops counting
Timer bit ON,
Current value = 0
Timer counts after
ON to OFF
transition
Timer bit OFF,
Current value = 0

(1) The retentive timer current value can be selected for retention through a power cycle. See Retentive Ranges Tab - System Block Configuration for information about memory retention for the S7–200 CPU.

Note:

The Reset (R) instruction can be used to reset any timer. The Reset instruction performs the following operations:

Timer Bit = OFF and Timer Current = 0

The TONR timer can only be reset by the Reset instruction.

After a reset, TOF timers require the enabling in put to make the transition from ON to OFF in order to restart.

1-Millisecond Resolution

The 1-ms timers count the number of 1-ms timer intervals that have elapsed since the active 1-ms timer was enabled. The execution of the timer instruction starts the timing; however, the 1-ms timers are updated (timer bit and timer current) every millisecond asynchronous to the scan cycle. In other words, the timer bit and timer current are updated multiple times throughout any scan that is greater than 1 ms.

The timer instruction is used to turn the timer on, reset the timer, or, in the case of the TONR timer, to turn the timer off.

Since the timer can be started anywhere within a millisecond, the preset must be set to one time interval greater than the minimum desired timer interval. For example, to guarantee a timed interval of at least 56 ms using a 1-ms timer, the preset time value should be set to 57.

10–Millisecond Resolution

The 10-ms timers count the number of 10-ms timer intervals that have elapsed since the active 10-ms timer was enabled. The execution of the timer instruction starts the timing; however the 10-ms timers are updated at the beginning of each scan cycle (in other words, the timer current and timer bit remain constant throughout the scan), by adding the accumulated number of 10-ms intervals (since the beginning of the previous scan) to the current value for the active timer.

Since the timer can be started anywhere within a 10-ms interval, the preset must be set to one time interval greater than the minimum desired timer interval. For example, to guarantee a timed interval of at least 140 ms using a 10-ms timer, the preset time value should be set to 15.

100–Millisecond Resolution

The 100-ms timers count the number of 100-ms timer intervals that have elapsed since the active 100-ms timer was last updated. These timers are updated by adding the accumulated number of 100-ms intervals (since the previous scan cycle) to the timer’s current value when the timer instruction is executed.

The current value of a 100-ms timer is updated only if the timer instruction is executed. Consequently, if a 100-ms timer is enabled but the timer instruction is not executed each scan cycle, the current value for that timer is not updated and it loses time. Likewise, if the same 100-ms timer instruction is executed multiple times in a single scan cycle, the number of 100-ms intervals are added to the timer’s current value multiple times, and it gains time. 100-ms timers should only be used where the timer instruction is executed exactly once per scan cycle.

Since the timer can be started anywhere within a 100-ms interval, the preset must be set to one time interval greater than the minimum desired timer interval. For example, to guarantee a timed interval of at least 2100 ms using a 100-ms timer, the preset time value should be set to 22.

Updating the Timer Current Value

The effect of the various ways in which current time values are updated depends upon how the timers are used. For example, consider the timer operation shown in the diagram below.

·In the case where the 1–ms timer is used, Q0.0 is turned on for one scan whenever the timer’s current value is updated after the normally closed contact T32 is executed and before the normally open contact T32 is executed.

·In the case where the 10–ms timer is used, Q0.0 is never turned on, because the timer bit T33 is turned on from the top of the scan to the point where the timer box is executed. Once the timer box has been executed, the timer’s current value and its T–bit is set to zero. When the normally open contact T33 is executed, T33 is off and Q0.0 is turned off.

·In the case where the 100–ms timer is used, Q0.0 is always turned on for one scan whenever the timer’s current value reaches the preset value.

By using the normally closed contact Q0.0 instead of the timer bit as the enabling input to the timer box, the output Q0.0 is guaranteed to be turned on for one scan each time the timer reaches the preset value.

Example of Automatically Retriggered One Shot timer

Example of On-Delay Timer

Example of Retentive On-Delay Timer

Example of Off-Delay Timer